Causes & possible remedial steps of Unemployment in Manipur
By Pe-pao.net 15-Jul-2019
Manipur may be classified into two distinct physical regions - an outer rings of rugged hills and narrow valleys and the inner area of flat plains, with all associated land forms. These two areas are not only distinct in respect of physical features but also in terms of development and employment, wherein the valley area is much better off in both these contexts.
According to the 2011 census, Manipur has a total population of 27, 21,756 lakhs, with 26.18% in urban areas and remainder 73.82% in rural areas. The literacy rate stands at 79.85% ,higher than the national average of 74.04%,of that ,male literacy stands at 86.49% and female literacy at 73.17%. However,despite the high literacy rate, Manipur as compared to the rest of the country, remains a socio-economically backward state.
The economy of Manipur is characterized by high rate of unemployment and poverty, low capital formation, inadequate infrastructural facilities, geographically isolation, communication bottlenecks and practically no industrialization. Agriculture continues to be the mainstay of the economy with more than 70% of the population dependent on it for livelihood.
The employment situation in Manipur is a matter of concern, with most of it being a rural phenomenon. The number of persons on the live register of the employment exchange rose from 2.28 lakh as on 30thJune 1993 to 7.14 lakhs as on 30th June 2012, which could be much more than this because many are still not registered in the employment exchange.
The high rate of unemployment, particularly among educated youth is due to the lack of industrial base, the absence of private enterprise and limited employment opportunity in the government sector. It is open-secret that every government job has a price tag. Those boys and girls whose parents cannot afford large amounts to be paid as bribe are disillusioned and become susceptible to anti-national propaganda.
Geographical isolation, political hopelessness, lack of infrastructure development, lack of incentive for private enterprises participation and poor trade opportunities could be the reason why educated youth seek financial security by joining in many illegal activities like drug trafficking, sex rackets, imposter as insurgent and imposed financial demands to many.
In fact, considering the large number of educated unemployed, such unlawful, illegal and immoral practices/activities are fast emerging as an alternate and lucrative means of unemployment.
Such is the demand of government jobs in Manipur that in 2011, when the state government employed some 1000 men to form an armed Village Defense Force(VDF), it had received application from some 17,000 people who were either graduates or postgraduates whereas state was looking to hire who had not even completed school.
Lack of access to quality and affordable education as well as vocational training institute outside the capital city of Imphal has often led to students from other parts of the state dropping out before acquiring any meaningful educational qualification. The report of the Higher Education Commission has noted this glaring disparity between Imphal valley and the rest of the state.
The education infrastructure is primitive and quality education is almost non-existent in areas outside Imphal. This disparity has affected higher education adversely, particularly in the hills where even the basic infrastructure and minimum teaching staff are found lacking. There is also a serious deficiency of Math and science teachers in schools, especially those located in tribal areas.
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