, clothing and shelter are the primary requirements of every human being across the globe. As productivity and physical efficiency are interconnected, these necessities play a very significant role in the survival. In India, there is a massive gap between demand and supply of houses. As the gap increases, the slums in the cities become a major stumbling block for both individualistic and societal developments.
The World Resources Institute’s latest report (released on July 12, 2017) titled ‘Crisis in the Global South: Adequate, Secure and Affordable Housing’ estimates the global affordable housing gap to be 330 million urban households. It forecasts this number to grow by more than 30% by 2025 to 440 million households or 1.6 billion people.
While talking about India, according to the 2011 Census, there were 1.77 million homeless people in India, or 0.15% of the country's total population. There is a shortage of 18.78 million houses in the country. Total number of houses has increased from 52.06 million to 78.48 million. There were many schemes proposed and implemented by the government to wipe out the issue of homelessness in the country.Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (PMAY)
The Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana was launched by PM Narendra Modi in 2015. Also known as the Housing For All scheme, the mission is to provide shelters to the homeless by 2022. Under the scheme, the Centre would be providing assistance to states and UT to provide homes to every citizen within seven years. The Central government has also announced home loan interest subsidy to those who are buying their first home in urban areas. Under the scheme, the government will provide interest subsidy of three to four per cent for a home loan amount of up to Rs 9 lakh and Rs 12 lakh.Pradhan Mantri Gramin Awaas Yojana
Earlier known as Indira Awas Yojna, the scheme focuses on providing pucca houses with basic amenities to homeless families. The objective is to build one crore homes of 25 sqm by 2022. The government shares the cost of construction with the state in the ratio of 60:40 in plain areas and 90:10 for northeastern and hilly areas. The cost for the unit assistance of Rs 1.2 lakh is also provided to the beneficiary. People who will be benefitted are mentioned here.
Rajiv Awas Yojna
- Households without shelter
- Destitute/living on alms
- Manual scavengers
- Tribal groups
- Legally released bonded labour
Launched in 2009, the Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY) envisages a slum-free India and encourages state and union territories (UT) to bring all illegal constructions within a formal system. To increase the affordable housing stock under the scheme, the Centre has approved the Affordable Housing in Partnership (AHP) scheme to be part of the RAY. The scheme also provides support of Rs 75,000 per economically-weaker sections (EWS), Dwelling Units (DUs) of the size of 21 to 40 sqm. So far, Rs 1,398 crore has been spent while 37,000 houses are being developed under the scheme.
These are some of the policies implemented by the various governments so far. Even after implementing, where did all these policies fall short of and why haven't we tasted its fruits yet? Considering the fact that finding adequate land for this becomes a huge problem, particularly in rural areas, where public land stock for housing presents many challenges. In cities, housing without access to livelihoods has found few takers, even among the very poor. Rather than making ideal policies that sound alluring, implementation of the same has to be done. Hence, the policies will have its impact on its society's development.